Concept of Statements and Assumptions in Logical Reasoning.

Logical-Reasoning-in-CAT (1)

Verbal reasoning is the process of justifying your preferred assumptions with the help of evidence, facts data and examples stated in the statement. It aims at evaluating ability to think constructively, rather than at simple vocabulary recognition. Verbal reasoning tests intelligence and assesses an individual’s ability to think, reason and solve problems in different ways. It’s crucial to distinguish terminologies frequently used while solving verbal reasoning questions such as :

Statement: At the simplest level, a statement is a formal account of certain facts, views, problems or situations expressed in words.

Assumption: An idea which is thought to be true, or certain to happen, but is not explicitly proved or supported by facts.

Implicit: Something that is suggested or is to be understood, though it is not plainly expressed.

Explicit: Something that is either exaggerated or can’t be proved hence wrong.

Keywords: Words like ‘all’, ‘only’, ‘every’, etc. are definitive in nature, whereas words like ‘some’, ‘a few’, ‘many’, etc, are not.

Guidelines

  • Assumption is expected to be assertive and indefinite all the time.
  • Assumption can’t be exclusive which means it cannot have words such as most, best, always, all, definetaly, certainly etc.
  • Usually generic statements should not be assumption
  • There should be coherence between the statement and its assumptions
  • Hypothetical scenario is not same as assumption
  • If any assumption is talking about past & future that assumption will always be explicit (False).
  • Comparison mostly produce wrong assumption.

Statement : The chairman and secretary of the housing society have requested society members to use water economically to help society save on water tax.

1) Assumptions :

  • I. Majority of members of society are likely to follow the request.
  • II. It is desirable to reduce expenditure wherever possible.
    1. Only assumption I is implicit
    2. Only assumption II is implicit
    3. Either I or II is implicit
    4. Neither I nor II is implicit
    5. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: Option B

Explanation: Nothing about the response of society members can be deduced from the statement so I is not implicit. But II is implicit.

2) Statement: The college administration has instructed all the students to stop using cell phone within the college premises.

Assumption:

  • I. The student may stop using cell phone in the college premise.
  • II. The student may continue to use cell phone in the college premises.
    1. A. Only assumption I is implicit
    2. B. Only assumption II is implicit
    3. C. Either I or II is implicit
    4. D. Neither I nor II is implicit
    5. E. Both I and II are implicit

Answer: Option A

Explanation: Assumption II is unprecedented and unusual . It’s not supported by any specific condition.


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